Prenatal Paternity Test Options
For prenatal testing, or paternity testing while pregnant, there are a few options to choose from:
Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity (NIPP): A non-invasive prenatal paternity test is the most accurate non-invasive way to establish paternity before the baby is born. The process is state-of-the-art, combining the latest technology and proprietary methods of preserving and analyzing the baby’s DNA found naturally in the mother’s bloodstream. This test requires only a simple blood collection from the mother and alleged father. This test can be performed any time after the 7th week of pregnancy. The results are 100% accurate and the only non-invasive prenatal paternity test to be AABB certified.
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS): This test consists of a thin needle or tube which a doctor inserts from the vagina, through the cervix, guided by an ultrasound, to obtain chorionic villi. Chorionic villi are little finger-like pieces of tissue attached to the wall of the uterus. The chorionic villi and the fetus come from the same fertilized egg and have the same genetic makeup. This testing can be done in the 10th-13th week of pregnancy. The consent of an OB-GYN is needed to do this procedure for paternity testing.
Amniocentesis: During this procedure, the doctor uses ultrasound to guide a thin needle into your uterus, through your abdomen. The needle draws out a small amount of amniotic fluid, which is tested. Risks include a small chance of harming the baby and miscarriage. Other side effects may include cramping, leaking of amniotic fluid, and vaginal bleeding. A doctor’s consent is needed to do this procedure for paternity testing. This test is performed in the second trimester, anywhere from the 14th-20th weeks of pregnancy.
More details on each of these options are listed here:
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
CVS is usually performed between 10 and 13 weeks from your last menstrual period. This is primarily a diagnostic test for seeing if there are abnormal chromosomes or inherited disorders. CVS is a diagnostic procedure which involves removing some chorionic villi cells from the placenta at the point where it attaches to the uterine wall. A health care provider may suggest this medical procedure if there are any family medical histories, on either the mother or father’s side, that show possible risks. Using the fluid that the medical professional extracts, we are able to compare this to the suspected father or father’s DNA to determine paternity. The alleged father’s DNA sample is usually a buccal (mouth) swab, however we can also test some items if you wish to test the suspected father’s DNA without his knowledge, or he is not available for testing.
There are two ways samples are collected:
Transcervical: This is the most common method where a thin catheter is guided using ultrasound, through the cervix to the placenta. The chorionic villi cells are gently suctioned into the catheter.
Transabdominal: This method of collection is quite similar to amniocentesis, when a long thin needle is guided by ultrasound through the abdomen to the placenta. The needle draws a sample of tissue and then is removed.
How To Collect The DNA Sample: Included in the price of the testing is a DNA collection kit that is specific to CVS testing. We will ship this kit to either you, or your physician, USPS Priority mail. Included in the kit are the necessary collection supplies (tubes for the mother’s fluid sample, buccal swabs for the alleged father), detailed instructions, and a prepaid overnight return mailer for returning your sample to the lab.
What Is The Processing Time For CVS Testing?: Once our lab has all DNA samples for the analysis, results are generally ready in 5 business days. Results are emailed to you as soon as they are ready, and are easy to understand.
CVS is an invasive procedure, and we encourage you speak with your OB-GYN about any concerns involved in this type of prenatal testing. Our laboratory fees do not include the OB-GYN fee for collecting the prenatal sample.
Amniocentesis is done in most cases between 14 and 20 weeks, although there are a few medical facilities that state they will perform amniocentesis as early as 11 weeks. Amniocentesis is a medical diagnostic ;procedure that may be recommended by your health care provider to determine if genetic disorders may be present in the fetus. A sonogram used to guide the needle to enter the amniotic sac, so the extraction of fluid can take occur. A sample of amniotic fluid is collected through the needle. The procedure takes about 45 minutes, although the collection of fluid takes less than five minutes. The amniotic fluid, which contains cells shed by the fetus, is sent to the laboratory for analysis and is compared to a DNA sample from the possible father(s) to conclusively determine paternity.
Amniocentesis is considered a safe procedure, however it is recognized as an invasive diagnostic test that does pose potential risks. It is estimated (Mayo Clinic) to be done about 200,000 times a year. The risk of miscarriage ranges from 1 in 400 to 1 in 200. In facilities where amniocentesis is performed regularly, the rates are closer to 1 in 400.
How Is The Amniocentesis Sample Collected?: Included in the price of the testing is a DNA collection kit that is specific to Amniocentesis testing. We will ship this kit to either you, or your physician, USPS Priority mail. Included in the kit are the necessary collection supplies (tubes for the mother’s fluid sample, buccal swabs for the alleged father), detailed instructions, and a prepaid overnight return mailer for returning your sample to the lab. If the test results are to be used for any legal purpose, we will also include the required chain of custody, and in legal cases, can only ship the kit to the physician directly.
What Is The Processing Time For Amniocentesis Testing?: Once our lab has all DNA samples for the analysis, results are generally ready in 5 business days. Results are emailed to you as soon as they are ready, and are easy to understand.
Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure, and we suggest that you speak with your physician about the risks involved in this type of prenatal testing. Our testing cost does not include any physician fees for collecting the prenatal sample.
Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity Test (NIPP)
Our advanced Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity Test, often known as a NIPP test, will identify the father of a child as soon as 7 weeks into pregnancy with the highest degree of accuracy. Seven (7) weeks is the earliest to ensure enough fetal DNA is floating in your blood sample to get an accurate result. Don’t be misled by advertising that promises accurate results if you are between 4 – 7 weeks pregnant. Science doesn’t support enough genetic material from the fetus to be able to tell who the father is.
This is the most reliable and advanced prenatal paternity test available, using trace DNA extraction techniques to screen for fetal DNA in the mother’s bloodstream. It’s safer and easier than old, more invasive techniques such as amniocentesis. The alleged father’s DNA is collected with a mouth swab, and the mother’s DNA sample is a simple blood draw.
Our NIPP test is recommended as an option for verifying who the alleged father is prior to birth for the following reasons:
- Early Testing – The earliest testing for prenatal paternity testing available in direct to consumer tests.
- Accuracy Guaranteed – Every test is run twice before releasing the results so you know they are accurate every time.
- Noninvasive – 100% safe for mother and baby with no added risks to the pregnancy.
- Testing Laboratory in the USA – There is always a risk when sending DNA samples outside of a regulated USA laboratory as there is no guarantee as to the testing regulations in place. We strongly recommend that you ask exactly where your DNA is being tested.
- AABB Accredited Testing Lab – This accreditation is the most important criteria when selecting a DNA laboratory. Our partner lab is AABB accredited.
Why Is Establishing Paternity Important?
Establishing paternity is important both to the child and the parents It can help protect his or her future, and ensure things like child support and custody are with the true father.
Determining a biological relationship is important for several reasons:
- To establish legal and social benefits, including social security, veteran’s, and inheritance benefits.
- Provides an accurate medical history for the child, giving the healthcare provider additional insight during diagnosis and in managing the child’s health.
- Strengthens the bond between biological individuals, such as father and child.
If you are pregnant and not married, most states have laws that require an Acknowledgment of Paternity (AOP) form to be completed at the hospital immediately after birth to legally establish who the father is. After the AOP is signed, couples have a limited amount of time, depending on the state, to request DNA paternity test and amend the AOP. This form is filed with the Bureau of Vital Statistics and is a legally binding document.
If the time allowed for amending this form expires, the father listed as the AOP and birth certificate could be held legally responsible for the child, even if he later proves he is not the biological father.
Some states require an unmarried couple to have a paternity test to list a father’s name on the birth certificate. If the mother is married to someone other than the father of the child, the husband can be presumed to be the father and listed on the birth certificate as the legal father, unless otherwise disputed by a paternity test.
What The Difference Between Legal And Informational Prenatal DNA Testing?
Chain-of-custody requirements must be fulfilled for test results to be defensible in any legal situation, such as inheritance disputes. These requirements include the following:
- Samples are collected by a neutral third party, such as an OB-GYN (for prenatal samples), clinic, or laboratory
- The individuals tested are positively identified (i.e., they present a government-issued ID to be photocopied and/or they are photographed and fingerprinted)
- A Journey Prenatal Kit is used for the collection of the prenatal sample; this kit includes a Prenatal Client Identification and Consent Form for the mother and OB-GYN to sign. We will ship directly to the OB-GYN (shipping charges included in the price of the testing).
- The mother and alleged father(s) complete and sign the Client Identification and Consent Form.
- The office of the OB-GYN sends the samples to the lab in the prepaid packaging provided. In order to be legally admissible, the samples cannot be in the possession of those testing at any time prior to reaching our laboratory.
The results will be exactly the same as in a legal testing, however the results are not considered legally admissible. In a non-chain of custody test, the buccal swab samples are collected by the patients themselves. Prenatal samples may be collected by the mother’s OB-GYN, and we also accept samples submitted by a laboratory. Results of this test are for personal knowledge only and may not be used for legal purposes. Since the origin of the samples cannot be verified, names are listed on the report in the same way they are labeled on the samples. The kit will be shipped to the address indicated on the order form, and also includes prepaid overnight return packaging.
How Much Does A Prenatal Paternity Test Cost?
All prenatal paternity test fees include:
• USPS Priority shipping of the DNA kit.
• The kit which contains blood collection supplies and any required forms.
• Mouth swabs and specimen envelope for alleged father.
• A prepaid overnight FedEx biohazard shipping pak which enables quick arrival of samples.
• All DNA laboratory analysis and fees.
• The result of your DNA test.
Legally admissible testing is available on each of our testing options for an additional fee of $100.00 Note: Legal results require a chain of custody and a third party, not related to any individual testing, to collect the samples and complete the required Chain-of-Custody documents.
Often Asked Questions About Prenatal Paternity Tests
How Soon Can I Take A Prenatal Paternity Test?
Our non-invasive (NIPP) testing can done as early as 7 weeks into your pregnancy.
Can I Test More Than One Possible Father?
Yes. If you would like to test more than one potential father, you can select this option when placing your order (there will be an additional charge).
How Accurate Is Your Prenatal Paternity DNA Test?
Our lab is accredited both by AABB and ISO 17025 to carry out prenatal paternity testing. Our NIPP test is the only test accredited by AABB .
Our results are 100% accurate as they are delivered to you.
On NIPP testing, in a very small number of cases, a conclusive result may not be reached due to a lack of fetal free float DNA. In those cases we will provide you an additional test kit after two weeks (after the mother is at least nine weeks into the pregnancy). This means you will need to acquire other blood samples from a medical professional.
Can Your Prenatal Paternity Test Be Done After Fertility Treatments?
Yes! This testing is a great option for expectant parents who have become pregnant after undergoing fertility treatment.
There are an increasing numbers of babies born as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or surrogacy. Our DNA testing will give you confirmation and peace of mind as to the biological identity of an unborn child’s father.
We have seen that, while mistakes are uncommon, during the fertilization process occurring in a clinic or hospital, there is a small risk of the wrong sperm sample being used. When this does happen, the sperm donor may not be the biological father of the child.
Our prenatal paternity test can help ensure any errors are identified before the baby is born.
Can I Use A Discreet Sample For the Possible Father?
In most cases, yes. Discreet samples are items like nail clippings, cigarette butts, ear swabs, nasal mucus, blood card/blood stain on fabric only. We are not able to accept a toothbrush for a non-standard sample on prenatal testing. There is an additional cost per item, as a viability test must be performed prior to standard prenatal paternity testing.
For non-invasive testing, the discreet sample will need to undergo viability testing prior to having the mother’s blood draw and sent to our lab. If the sample is viable, then the testing can proceed.
If you have questions on non-standard samples for these tests, please call us at 1-855-362-5224, or email us at email@example.com.
How Long Will It Take To Get My Kit?
Online orders are processed the same business day they are received. All kits are shipped via USPS Priority, and delivered in most cases in 2-3 days, to addresses within the United States.
When And How Will I Get My Results?
As soon as our lab has received all DNA samples for your case, testing begins at our accredited laboratory. You will receive your results by email in 3-7 business days, depending on the test you ordered, after we have received your specimens.