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What dna test do I need

What’s the Difference Between A Legal DNA Test And An At Home DNA Test?

What DNA Test Do I Need?

One of the most asked questions we are asked is “what DNA test do I need?” DNA testing through Journey means that there is no difference in the accuracy of our at home or legal DNA test, as both results are 100% accurate. The difference is in how you can use the results.

Many biological relationship can be verified with legal DNA testing, including paternity, maternity, siblings, grandparents, and avuncular aunt/uncle relationships.You might be considering if you actually require legal DNA test findings or merely informational ones. We’ll discuss a few factors in this post that you might want to take into account before choosing a product.

It’s no secret that the findings of genetic testing can genuinely alter lives. Legal DNA testing can be used to verify a new, brother or sister who was previously unknown, or to validate an existing biological link. Whatever the situation, it’s critical to carefully plan, evaluate any potential consequences, and determine whether legal action may be required as a result (such as a probate issue, Social Security benefits, child support, etc.).

The most important thing you can do when deciding move forward with a DNA test, regardless of whether you are conducting legal or non-legal testing, is to make sure the analysis is done in an AABB recognized lab.

Next, get familiar with industry lingo. A DNA test that yields a signed, notarized, and AABB-sealed certificate of results is considered to be lawful or admissible in court. DNA testing for informational purposes is not legally binding and should therefore only be used for personal knowledge. Legal DNA Testing requires that the specimen collection must follow strict chain of custody as set forth by the AABB.  Most importantly this means that the DNA collection must be witnessed from beginning to end by a third party not related to the case in a clinic or lawyer’s office if mutually agreed by both parties.

Sometimes people want to use a friend or neighbor as a witness in a legal DNA test. Some companies will tell you this is permitted, however it is critical to know that if the validity of the results or the chain of custody is questioned, the evidence won’t be acceptable. All test participants are required to present a reliable form of identification. Also the person doing the DNA collection must be properly trained. We require an additional step for our network of over 3,500 DNA collectors – signing a document with each collection verifiying they are have received proper training, and how much experinece they have.

In contrast, no one needs to be present to witness the gathering for a non-legal informational test, and no IDs are necessary. Only the private test kit can be completed in the comfort of your home.

The legal document we provide can be used, among other things, to modify a birth certificate, submit a DNA sample for immigration purposes, or establish a relationship for the purpose of receiving social security or insurance benefits, as well as helping to verify validity for inheritance. A legal test result can be used to secure child custody and paternity rights in divorce situations, which happens frequently.

It’s crucial to think about up front whether you believe you would wish to pursue any kind of legal action once you learn the findings of your test. It is recommended to start with the legally-binding results if you feel that you need to move through with legal proceedings. You cannot modify the test type later if you decide to conduct a non-legal test first. You would have to retake the legal DNA test from scratch.Another factor to take into account is that once someone is aware of the findings of the test, they can decide against doing a legal DNA test.

If you have any questions, call us and speak to one of our Genetic Consultants at 855-362-5224. You can also email us with your questions at

Grandparent DNA Testing

Grandparent DNA Testing

Grandparent DNA Test by Journey Genetic Testing

A great approach to be certain of your biological connection to a grandchild is to have your DNA tested as a grandparent.

When the father is unavailable, there are numerous instances where a grandparent’s DNA is compared with the DNA of a grandchild. For instance, if the father is in another state, is incarcerated, is serving in the military overseas, or is deceased, you might want to learn the truth without alerting anyone to your suspicions.

A grandmother or grandfather will frequently question whether their son actually did father the child. It’s sometimes better to research before approaching the father with the prospect because this might be a delicate subject. In other cases, the father may just reject the idea that there is any possibility he is not the child’s biological father. There are a lot of loving grandparents in this position. Do not believe that you are helpless or that there are no other options if you are.

With the use of DNA grandparent testing, it is now possible to 100% accurately determine the likelihood that a grandparent and grandchild are truly biologically related. However, if the child’s mother is available and aware of the testing, it is better to have her participate in the test. If the mother’s DNA is included in the test, all of her DNA will be completely removed from the child’s profile, leaving the lab just with the DNA that the father provided to the child, which can then be compared to his parent. A higher degree of probability may be provided by this. However, if it is required, the mother can be excluded from the test.

A Legal Grandparent DNA Test is frequently used to produce proof that a child is eligible to receive Social Security payments after his or her father has gone away. In these situations, it is virtually always necessary to test the mother as well. If the father’s name was not listed on the birth certificate, a legally binding document must be submitted before the childcan receive benefits. This kind of DNA testing is a priceless tool for ensuring that your grandchild will be financially supported.

Testing BOTH paternal grandparents alongside the child is another way to test grandparents’ DNA. A missing parent DNA test is what this is known as. In Missing Parent Testing, the genetic profile of the father is essentially “recreated” by combining the DNA of the two grandparents. The purported grandchild would then be compared to this profile, which would typically yield a very conclusive DNA test result. Similar to the Grandparent test, it is advantageous to include the mother in this exam if she is accessible.

Make sure all your testing is done in an DNA testing lab that is AABB Accredited if any of these situations apply to you and you want to find out for sure.

For additional information please visit our Grandparent DNA Test page or call us at Toll Free (855) 362-5224.

Do I Only Need An At Home Paternity Test?

Do I Only Need A Home Paternity Test?

paternity test

A Journey Genetic Testing home paternity test kit can be used to determine, conclusively and beyond any reasonable doubt, if a man is the biological father of a child. A paternity test is frequently required for this DNA process, as compared to a maternity test, since the identity of the mother is generally either known, or easier to establish.

Our home paternity test makes use of DNA technology that is precise, and we stand guarantee it to be 100% accurate, based on the genetic information from the DNA samples that are sent i n for testing.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic outline of an individual that is unique to only that person. A home paternity test is usually the right option to settle any questions you have about pate who the biological father is. Those involved can do the collection of samples for personal paternity tests themselves and simply send the DNA samples to the DNA paternity test lab for processing. So if you simply want to know who the father of a child is ‘discretely’, then a home-conducted paternity test is for you. This test provides the same results as a legal DNA test, however since it is collected at home, it is generally not court admissible.

A legal paternity test is admissible in any legal court within the United States, as long as certain protocols have been established and followed throughout the DNA testing process. This includes a person doing the DNA collection that is authorized to do so, and establishing a chain of custody with verification of each person’s identity. This would be the type of DNA test you need to add or change a name on the birth certificate, for child custody or support, and for immigration requirements. In most cases, if necessary, we can also provide expert witnesses for court proceedings.

The paternity tests we do have the DNA collected with a mouth swab. The DNA that the swab collects in from the lining of the inner cheek and gums. With the introduction of DNA paternity testing, the earlier methods used for testing biological associations like blood group typing and HLA analysis have become obsolete. Aside from being more accurate, collecting samples for paternity tests by mouth swab is painless and non-invasive compared to other methods. A swab from the inside of the mouth is widely accepted as the method of choice for obtaining the source material for a paternity test.

Each person's DNA is examined in a paternity test.

Illustration showing the structure of DNA

Whether for personal or legal circumstances, there are several paternity tests you can order for home use, or alternatively paternity test collection sites for legal testing, to have your samples taken. Legal DNA testing always done by appointment only, and can be done in multiple locations if those needing the DNA test live too far apart to meet at the same place.

The bottom-line however is this – knowing who a child’s father is may result in some difficult discussions, which should be fully anticipated before the DNA tests are conducted. Even though the conversations may be hard, each person has a right to know the truth of who their biological father is.

DNA Issues Series

Paternity and Sperm Donors

Sperm donation is a topic that has divided national and international opinion on both sides of the fence. The act of a man donating sperm creates a situation in which couples with fertility problems raise the child(ren) of the donated sperm. This kind of solution can be a blessing to childless families, but it also often sparks an emotional and moral debate over the role of the sperm donor to his eventual biological child. There is a chance that the child in later life will be confused by the fact that there is a relationship between DNA testing and the father.

Both sides of the issue have compelling points.

One argument considers a children right to see both of his or her biological parents, regardless of other factors. Some people think that the natural connection is stronger than anything that can be created, and that both the parent and child have a right to maintain contact with one another. Nevertheless, this perspective has been challenged by several strong arguments. First of all, in the context of sperm donation, this creates a lot of policy problems. Few people would say that it is a good thing to be able to track down a sperm donor. Sperm donation does not mean that a man has to be a father. For fear that this may disrupt the family unit and hinder the children upbringing, it is best that the sperm donor has no direct link to the child.

Moreover, the influential Hohfeld schema, which is based on a judicial context, suggests that rights correlate directly with responsibilities. What then are the responsibilities of a sperm donor, compared to his rights? There is a genetic link, but there is no paternal link. The sperm donor is already taking care of that part, so he has nothing to contribute aside from his common genetic materials.

The idea is that children should be allowed to grow up with their families and that biological relationships through sperm donation should be kept secret for policy reasons and to prevent problems later in life. However to counter this, why shouldn’t a child’s biological father have the right to contact and access, if not at a distance, with his child? Since the father and child share the same genes, it is possible to use DNA testing to determine whether the child will be subject to the same medical problems or temperament issues. This could be beneficial in treating illnesses.

The issue of sperm donor anonymity and DNA paternity testing.

A sperm donators anonymity could be further jeopardized by a DNA paternity test since it will confirm who the biological father is of the child. Is this right? In a case having national importance we were recently involved with, does a child have the right to compel a sperm donor to give up the right to remain anonymous? When a donor has a family, the disruption to their family should be considered prior to contact. Most donor sites promise that the information on the man donating will be kept confidential. The only time this should be able to be violated is with a court order, and in our opinion, that order only in the even of criminal intent on the part of the donor, or to save the life of the child.

The debate over the rights and responsibilities of the sperm donator in relation to his biological child is going to continue for many years to come.

Post-Mortem DNA Testing

Can I Do A Paternity Test If The Alleged Father Is Dead?

Can I Do A Paternity Test If the Father Is Deceased? The answer is “yes.”

DNA relationship testing is the most accurate method of confirming a biological relationship exists between two people. The most commonly used DNA test is a direct paternity test. In this test an alleged father’s genetic profile is created and compared to that of a child. The result will confirm whether or not he is the biological father of a child. The test is very easy to do, as it only requires rubbing swabs (buccal) on the inside of the mouth and sending it to our laboratory for analysis.

However, we understand that there are situations where the alleged father is no longer available for voluntary testing due to the fact he is deceased. Often, the first thought of those facing this situation is that paternity can now never be established conclusively. This would not be accurate.

There are a number of options possible for confirming if the deceased is the biological father of one or more children. It may be possible to still obtain a DNA sample from the deceased. If not, then you can also consider using a DNA relationship test. These DNA comparisons are similar to a DNA paternity test, but instead it uses DNA testing of close members of the family to confirm various types of relationships. The options include a DNA sibling test, a grandparent DNA test, or an avuncular DNA test with uses a uncle/aunt and suspected niece(s)/nephew(s).

In case of the death of a suspected father, lets look at three separate instances and what you can to do in these situations:

Scenario 1: If death has very recently occurred it may still be possible to collect a biological sample from the body (usually this period is not more than 3-5 days from time of death). If the body has been take to a funeral home, we recommended that a licensed funeral director tries to obtain (where possible) a mouth swab sample. If this is not possible, hair samples with root as well as fingernail cuttings may be able to be used. If the DNA test is wanted for legal reasons, a funeral director can also complete a chain of custody for this type of collection.

Scenario 2: If an autopsy was performed by a licensed Medical Examiner (M.E.), and either a blood or tissue sample was kept (which is more common that you may think), the next of kin can contact the M.E. and ask if they would release that sample for DNA testing. This is done using a chain of custody. We regularly work with this type of situation.

Scenario 3: In the event that the body has already been buried, samples may be obtained in an indirect manner – for example through a toothbrush, comb (might contain useful hairs), dentures, or recently smoked cigarette butts. These samples are all likely to contain DNA material that can be used to perform the test. However, success in obtaining DNA from such non-standard DNA samples depend on a number of factors most importantly the condition of the sample.

These are some of the most commonly used options available. Most importantly is the ability to obtain a DNA specimen from the deceased person that may contain DNA. The costs and difficulties in obtaining a sample in Scenario 2 may be higher than simply obtaining some hair or fingernails from the body. However, each case is unique and if you find yourself in this situation, we suggest you contact a Genetic Consultant at 1-855-362-5224 to discuss your situation in detail.

DNA Testing With Hair

paternity test using hair

DNA Testing With Hair

We are often asked if a paternity test with hair? The simple answer is “Yes.” Often an suspected father, mother, or adult child may want to perform a paternity test with hair, when the other party refuses to perform a paternity test, or they want to do DNA testing in a more discreet manner.

A paternity t est, sibling DNA test, grandparent DNA test, and avuncular DNA test can all be done using hair, and other non-standard samples. However, just submitting hair does not guarantee that the hair specimen will be able to have enough DNA to create the necessary genetic profile.

So if you are thinking about using hair for DNA testing, here is information that is important to know.

How much hair is needed for a DNA test?

In order to do a hair DNA test, the lab will need between 7 to 10 individual strands. These strands must have the hair follicles (roots)intact. The hair stands should always be removed from a brush or comb by the person sending the hair for examination. We strongly recommend that the hair be placed in a regular paper envelope for storage at room temperature. Any type of item that is being studied for genetic testing should never be placed in a plastic baggie, as bacteria can more easily form in that type of environment. Securely storing the item(s) in a paper envelope allows it to “breathe” while protecting it. This allows for the greatest possibility of success.

TV shows like CSI show DNA from any piece of hair. Why can’t I use hair that is cut?

Some shows make great entertainment, but are not always practical in real life.

Hair is composed of a protein known as Keratin. The structure of the hair is composed of three layers as follows:


Hair color is due to specific pigments including melanin. The absence of pigment makes hair white. The structure of the actual hair strand does not contain any cells. Nucleated DNA, the DNA necessary for a paternity test is only found in the root of the hair and not in the shaft. Therefore none of the above layers contain the DNA required for a paternity test.

How can I tell if the root is still attached?

You will need to closely examine the hair strand. It can be seen as a small bulb at the end of the hair. You may need to check using glasses or a magnifying glass if you are uncertain. We lose about 100 hairs every day just from our scalp, however, we do not shed them with the root attached.

Since the hair specimens are collected at home, with no objective proof of who they came from, results of this type of DNA tests cannot be used in court. That does not mean the findings of the DNA test are no accurate. On the contrary, once a DNA profile is generated, our results are 100% accurate. It only means the report is not likely to be accepted in court.

Step-by-step instructions for collecting hair for DNA:

  1. If you are collecting the hair from a brush or comb, make certain the roots are attached. If you are obtaining them directly from a person, pull seven – ten hairs from the head, eyebrow, underarm, or pubic area.
  2. Use tweezers to grasp the hair. If pulling from the head, the hairs can be pulled out with one quick, swift motion. Try to pull thicker hairs if possible.
  3. NEVER touch the end of the hair where it was attached tithe skin (the hair root). The hair root (small clump of skin cells) must be attached to the end of the hair after it is pulled from the brush or body. Please ensure the hair did not break, but was pulled out completely.
  4. Remember not to touch this end of the hair. Use latex gloves if they are available. Place the hair into a paper envelope. Label the envelope with the date and the name of the person (however you want to identify the sample, as long as you know whose hair specimen it is.

Hair in a paper envelope, stored at room temperature, can last for a long time, sometimes even years. Do not let anything come in contact with the hair to maintain the highest chance of viability.

Once the hair sample is received at the lab, a viability test will be conducted. From the viability test a DNA profile will be developed and compared to one or mother other individuals. Hair DNA testing can be done for one person, or for everyone being tested. Most labs will charge an additional fee per non-standard samples as additional work will be done.

Can My DNA Be Tested Without My Knowledge?

Can My DNA Be Tested Without My Knowledge?

Imagine suddenly receiving a letter and a copy of the DNA report that states the man you thought to be your biological father, isn’t! You contact him and he says he never gave his permission for his DNA to be tested. And then he asks, “can someone do that?” This happens all the time – grandparents test their grandchildren to be certain they are biologically related, mother’s send in a DNA sample of the child and another man suspected of being the true biological father, a father sends in a DNA sample from his child without the mother knowing, to make certain the child is his. With the rise in accuracy of DNA testing, the questions that used to be family gossip, can know be answered in just a couple of days.

What about the legality of sending in someone’s DNA to be tested without them knowing about it? It is not our intent to address the ethical issues surrounding this question, as there are valid arguments on both sides. What we do want to remind you is that when questions arise that require a DNA test to verify a relationship, emotions run high and these questions are not usually able to be put to rest until an answer is provided to person seeking to know the truth.

Regarding the question that is often asked about the legality of such testing, to the best of our knowledge, there is no specific law in the United States prohibiting a DNA test from being performed without a person’s consent, or in the case of a child, the consent of a legal guardian. However, the only DNA tests that can be performed without consent are private, also known as “peace of mind,” DNA tests. DNA testing results that are to be submitted as evidence in court, or for any legal purpose, which are done to prove a specific biological relationship, do require consent by the person being tested, or by the legal guardian for a minor child.

When a DNA mouth swab sample can’t be obtained for testing, as is often the case when requesting a DNA test without another person’s knowledge, the use of non-standard, or alternative DNA samples, are often used. Items like toothbrushes, hair strands with the roots attached, ear wax, cigarette butts, and many other items are often used for discreet testing without the other person aware that the testing is being done. Whether the items are gathered at home, or by a professional investigator, close to one out of every fifteen DNA paternity and relationship tests use something other than a mouth swab for DNA.

The answers these tests provide are important to those who are wanting to do the DNA testing. The results from the DNA comparison usually put all doubt to rest, and save uncomfortable, or hurtful, conversations in many cases. In the case of testing done through Journey Genetic Testing, there is no need to be concerned that any person’s DNA we use to do the testing, with or without consent, that it will ever be shared with anyone else. or find it’s way into any government database, or sold for research, as all samples and information are removed 30 days after the results are delivered.

If you ever find yourself faced with a report that states you are, or are not, related and you didn’t know your DNA was tested, we suggest you make certain the DNA markers listed are actually yours. You can have an individual DNA profile done by submitting mouth swabs, and then compare those findings. If they are yours, they will match exactly. If it isn’t your DNA, there will be differences.

Remember, the truth should always be available to everyone about their family relationships, no matter how that truth comes about.

Can a DNA test determine if siblings have the same father?

Can a DNA test determine if siblings have the same father?

The question we hear the most often is “can a DNA test determine if siblings have the same father?” The answer is YES! And with 100% accuracy.

sibling DNA testing - full or half sibling
100% Accurate Sibling DNA Test

Most of the time a sibling DNA test is done for the specific reason to determine paternity. Paternity testing determines whether or not the two, or more, individuals have the same biological father.

Yes! Most of the time a sibling DNA test is done to determine paternity. Paternity testing determines whether or not the two, or more, individuals have the same biological father. Maybe times the possible father has died, or he may be incarcerated, or is unwilling or otherwise unavailable to take a paternity test. These are the situations that sibling DNA testing was designed for.

A sibling test is usually done to put a person’s mind at ease, as the question about who the biological father is does not really go away until it is answered. However, there are also times that sibling test can be done to determine if a biological father is the same between two or more people for legal reasons. Because a legal sibling DNA test is highly accurate, the results can be used to establish a paternal relationship of children, by a mother, to obtain Social Security survivor benefits for their child. In such cases, the biological father of one child is undisputed and the mother needs to prove that the other child has the same father. Sibling DNA tests are also frequently performed to provide evidence of biological relationship for U.S. immigration applications. In rare cases, such as those where a child was given up for adoption, a sibling test may also be performed to address whether another individual has the same biological mother, known as a maternal sibling test.

Only companies whose sibling testing provides the same answer on a sibling DNA results report, whether the test was done for private reasons or legal reasons, should be used to ensure the results are accurate .

Two type of sibling test exist:

Full Siblings or Half Siblings? In this sibling test, we are determining if two siblings who have the same mother also have the same father. The DNA of two individuals with the same biological mother are compared to determine the probability that they have the same biological father. For these tests, it is always helpful when samples from the biological mother are included to also be tested. This enables the lab to determine exactly which genes the two children inherited from their biological father and thereby greatly increases the conclusiveness of the test.

Half Siblings vs. Unrelated? In these sibling tests, the DNA of two individuals with different biological mothers is compared to determine the likelihood that they have the same biological father. For these tests, we recommend that samples from one biological mother (it does not matter which one) be tested if possible. This enables the lab to determine exactly which genes the two children inherited from their biological father(s) and thereby greatly increases the strength of the test.

When the suspected father is not available, and you need to know the answer as to who your biological father is, you can be assured that a sibling DNA test is one option that is accurate and easy to do.

The Truth About Ancestry Testing

Can You Trust The Results From An Ancestry Test?

Can You Trust The Results From An Ancestry Test? Learn the truth about ancestry testing

The truth about ancestry testing is something you need to know. If you have recently received results from one of the many popular ancestry testing companies, you may be facing some questions you are earnestly seeking answers to. If your ethnic profile came back different than what you have been told, you may begin to wonder if you are really part of the family you thought you were (Am I adopted? – Do I have a different father? – Is my sibling really my sibling? – Do I have other family I didn’t know about?). These are common questions and ones you have a right to an answer to.

Journey Genetic Testing is here to help you on your path to understanding your true family relationships. Sometimes an ancestry report may suggest that you have a different father that you thought, in which case you are thinking about a paternity test. Or maybe the report you received indicates you have a half sibling you didn’t know about, in which case you are learning about a half sibling DNA test.

Our company has performed DNA testing for thousands of people with the same questions as you have. However, before we go down this road together, please read the following information to help you understand how we are different from the testing you took through the ancestry companies.

The Truth About Ancestry Testing. How accurate are ancestry tests when it comes to determining ethnicity and genealogy?

The companies selling these services don’t share their data, and their methods are not validated by an independent group of scientists. There are not agreed-upon standards of accuracy. People have sent their DNA to several of these companies and found differences in the results—though not necessarily radical differences. So you have to look at the percentages you receive back with skepticism.

In comparison our affiliated DNA testing laboratories are AABB accredited. That means there is a standardized methodology and testing protocol followed by the labs. The testing and labs each undergo an intensive review of their procedures and policies annually to be certain they are in compliance. AABB accredited labs are the only facilities that can conduct DNA testing that is court admissible, due to their high standards. The results we deliver for home testing follow the exact same process, and has the same results, as our legally admissible tests do, however the collection process is different, so they are not generally accepted for legal purposes.

The Truth About Ancestry Testing. Why do the tests return different results?

Each company offering these services uses its own proprietary database of DNA samples called ancestry informative markers (AIMs) from current populations in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. From within those databases, they each select for a certain number of alleles—one member of a pair of genes located at a specific position on a specific chromosome—and in these spots, use the genetic variations known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the basis for evaluating individuals. The markers—SNPs—are chosen because they have different frequencies across different geographical populations.

They compare SNPs with those most frequently associated with different populations in their reference database. The results are in no way definitive; instead each company uses common genetic variations as the basis for saying the probability is that 50 percent of your DNA is, for example, from North Europe and 30 percent is from Asia, based on how it compares to the information in its database. However, if you send DNA to a second company, you might get different results, because it has a different database. Studies that have compared ancestry databases have found poorer concordance with Hispanic, East Asian, and South Asian descent.

Some of the companies selling these testing services give you the option of learning about people who have similar SNPs to you, which may be why you have found us on your Journey. You can get a list of people who may appear to be part of your larger family ancestry, but that does not mean it is accurate, in large part because there is not a database of every single person’s DNA who is currently living, as well as at least two generations back.

The Truth About Ancestry Testing. What difference does it matter if the DNA testing process is not the same?

To compare our testing process with the process described above would be like comparing apples and oranges. Both test DNA, but have a different “taste.” Our testing process is STR (short tandem repeat) testing where we compare the DNA directly from two or more individuals to make a determination on their suspected relationship. Rather than suggesting the same person may be your uncle, your grandfather, a half sibling, or a cousin (all at the same time!), STR testing allows us to focus on the specific relationship in question with the DNA directly from those testing, for a reliable and accurate understanding of the likelihood of their relationship.

The Truth About Ancestry Testing. What else might make the results from an ancestry company inaccurate?

There’s a big chunk of data—actually the majority—that these genetics-testing services don’t use. Your DNA contains millions of SNPs, but these tests are selectively looking at certain genetic variations and use between 100 to 300 AIMs, which account for a small part of the SNPs that differentiate the human family. So even if a test says you are 50 percent European, really it can only report that half of those SNPs of your DNA looks to be European.

The results are further skewed by the fact that certain ancestry information markers used by any particular test may come from only your paternal line (Y chromosome) or your maternal line (mitochondrial DNA). Tests using these markers are less accurate.

In contrast, STR testing looks at genetic material from both the biological mother and father that was passed on to each of the specific people testing.

Finally, these testing services use DNA from modern populations in these regions to draw conclusions about people who lived in those areas hundreds, or even thousands, of years ago. It’s a big leap to assume that the particular SNPs used by the tests have remained constant for all that time.

You should understand that you are not matching your DNA to someone from hundreds of years ago. It’s also quite possible for someone who is African American to get ancestry test results that say they’re 75 percent European. That’s because the chosen ancestry-information markers reflect only a small percentage of our DNA, and there’s actually more genetic diversity within the African population than between the African population and a European population.

Why is your test most expensive than the ancestry test?

The companies offering these tests largely make their money not from doing the tests, but from selling the genetic information to other companies interested in having access to large genetic databases. Almost 50 percent of the firms that sell you your ancestry information turn around and sell your genetic information to some other company. That’s a big reason you see these test kits advertised as such low prices. They know they will monetize your information and profit heavily from your personal information.

Often these are pharmaceutical companies trying to understand how variations in certain sections of the human genome may be useful in drug development. (Certain drugs may not function as well in a person carrying certain mutations, so the companies want to find the frequency of these mutations in the population.) The vast majority of companies that offer ancestry tests hold onto your sample or sell it. So it’s not just the data, but your actual your saliva, that’s being shopped around.

Can I request my information be provided to GedMatch or another genealogy website after the testing?

Unfortunately, this is not possible. This is due to two reasons: First, STR testing does not produce “raw data” to upload. It is looking at 24 very specific genetic markers. The information used is not compatible. Second, we do not believe in sharing anyone’s person DNA information to anyone but them. Our privacy policy is the strictest of all DNA companies that we know of.

Many of the companies have privacy policies that state they can be changed at any time without notifying previous signers. In effect, you need to keep in contact with the company and keep yourself up-to-date on its policy. How many people are going to do that?

There’s also a lot of concern that even though your name is not listed on the database, when the data is sold to somebody, the records can be de-anonymized. It has happened before—people have been able to take genetic information with no name on it and, through other databases, find the name associated with that genetic material. Journey Genetic Testing NEVER sells your data, or uses it for any other purpose. All information is deleted from our company system 30 days after your results are delivered. Nothing is ever provided to any private tor government database.

The Truth About Ancestry Testing. Our Conclusion

Discrepancies in ancestry company’s testing process don’t mean that genetic science is a fraud, and that the companies are just making up these numbers. They have more to do with the limitations of the science and some key assumptions companies make when analyzing DNA for ancestry.

What’s not always obvious from these reports is that they’re based on estimates that can vary from company to company, and have built-in sources of error. Your results from one company can change over time as the company signs up more users, and gathers more data. This means that once the information changes, the people that you may be related to may change as well. That may be an unpleasant (or pleasant!) surprise.

To be certain that a relationship you are wondering about is real and exists, you should perform STR testing for the most accurate answers. Just be prepared that someone you are testing against that has been listed as a POSSIBLE relative, may be found through accredited testing to not be related in the way you think they are.

Do You Need A Legal Paternity Test?

Do I Need A Legal Paternity Test?

legal paternity test legal dna test

Home DNA tests may be more accessible and affordable, but the results may not be legally acknowledged in court because they can be easily tampered with since there is no chain of custody procedure involved to confirm the identity of the participating parties. The remedy is therefore to go for a court admissible paternity test – this may sound more complicated than home DNA tests, but it’s still a relatively straightforward process.

Once the court imposes a DNA test, what you should do is order a legal paternity test. After the test order has been reviewed, an appointment with an approved DNA collector in your area (based on zip code) will be scheduled. The DNA specimen collection will need to be performed by an authorized third party to verify the identity of the donors. During the sampling process, government issued picture identification documents will be required, and photocopied. At no point in the process are the participants allowed to have any access to the testing kit. The DNA collector will ensure the samples are properly collected, sealed and sent directly to the laboratory for testing. Upon receipt, the laboratory will ensure the samples are sealed and that they chain of custody has been preserved. Then testing will begin, and an official result is issued. This procedure ensures none of the participants can dispute the result.

It is not possible to force a person to take a DNA paternity test without intervention by the Court, or other authorized agency. Even when a court orders the test to be performed it is still possible for the one of the parties to refuse – with all the legal ramifications that come with it. So essentially for the benefit of the child and clarity, it is always recommended that participants willingly submit to the testing, and save a lot of stress and unexpense all-round.

And once the test has been ordered by the Court then it is important to make sure to go to an accredited testing facility for your court admissible DNA test. Experienced providers such as Journey Genetic Testing will have the necessary technical, scientific and support structures, including collection points across the US, to meet all your DNA testing needs and make the whole process as stress free as possible.

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